THE 'SA/LD-RET' SUBROUTINE
This subroutine is common to both SAVEing and LOADing.
The border is set to its original colour and the BREAK key tested for a last
053F SA/LD-RET PUSH AF Save the carry flag (It is reset after
a LOADing error)
LD A,(BORDCR) Fetch the original border colour from
AND +38 its system variable
RRCA Move the border colour to bits 2, 1 & 0
OUT (+FE),A Set the border to its original colour
LD A,+7F Read the BREAK key for a last time
EI Enable the maskable interrupt
JR C,0554,SA/LD-END Jump unless a break is to be made
Report D - BREAK-CONT repeats
0552 REPORT-D RST 0008,ERROR-1 Call the error handling routine
0554 SA/LD-END POP AF Retrieve the carry flag
RET Return to the calling routine
THE 'LD-BYTES' SUBROUTINE
This subroutine is called to LOAD the header information (from 076E) and later
LOAD, or VERIFY, an actual block of data (from 0802).
0556 LD-BYTES INC D This resets the zero flag (D cannot
EX AF,AF' The A register holds +00 for a header
and +FF for a block of data
The carry flag is reset for VERIFYing
and set for LOADing
DEC D Restore D to its original value
DI The maskable interrupt is now disabled
LD A,+0F The border is made WHITE
LD HL,+053F Pre-load the machine stack with the
PUSH HL address - SA/LD-RET
IN A,(+FE) Make an initial read of port 254
RRA Rotate the byte obtained
AND +20 but keep only the EAR bit
OR +02 Signal RED border
LD C,A Store the value in the C register
(+22 for 'off' and +02 for 'on' - the
present EAR state)
CP A Set the zero flag
The first stage of reading a tape involves showing that a pulsing signal
actually exists. (i.e. 'On/off' or 'off/on' edges.)
056B LD-BREAK RET NZ Return if the BREAK key is being pressed
056C LD-START CALL 05E7,LD-EDGE-1 Return with the carry flag reset if
JR NC,056B,LD-BREAK there is no 'edge' within approx.
14,000 T states. But if an 'edge' is
found the border will go CYAN
The next stage involves waiting a while and then showing that the signal is
LD HL,+0415 The length of this waiting period will
0574 LD-WAIT DJNZ 0574,LD-WAIT be almost one second in duration.
CALL 05E3,LD-EDGE-2 Continue only if two edges are found
JR NC,056B,LD-BREAK within the allowed time period.
Now accept only a 'leader signal'.
0580 LD-LEADER LD B,+9C The timing constant
CALL 05E3,LD-EDGE-2 Continue only if two edges are found
JR NC,056B,LD-BREAK within the allowed time period
LD A,+C6 However the edges must have been found
CP B within about 3,000 T states of each
JR NC,056C,LD-START other
INC H Count the pair of edges in the H
JR NZ,0580,LD-LEADER register until 256 pairs have been found
After the leader come the 'off' and 'on' parts of the sync pulse.
058F LD-SYNC LD B,+C9 The timing constant
CALL 05E7,LD-EDGE-1 Every edge is considered until two edges
JR NC,056B,LD-BREAK are found close together - these will be
LD A,B the start and finishing edges of the
CP +D4 'off' sync pulse
CALL 05E7,LD-EDGE-1 The finishing edge of the 'on' pulse
RET NC must exist
(Return carry flag reset)
The bytes of the header or the program/data block can now be LOADed or VERIFied.
But the first byte is the flag byte.
LD A,C The border colours from now on will be
XOR +03 BLUE & YELLOW
LD H,+00 Initialize the 'parity matching' byte
LD B,+B0 Set the timing constant for the flag
JR 05C8,LD-MARKER Jump forward into the byte LOADing loop
The byte LOADing loop is used to fetch the bytes one at a time. The flag byte is
first. This is followed by the data bytes and the last byte is the 'parity'
05A9 LD-LOOP EX AF,AF' Fetch the flags
JR NZ,05B3,LD-FLAG Jump forward only when handling the
JR NC,05BD,LD-VERIFY Jump forward is VERIFYing a tape
LD (IX+00),L Make the actual LOAD when required
JR 05C2,LD-NEXT Jump forward to LOAD the next byte
05B3 LD-FLAG RL C Keep the carry flag in a safe place
XOR L Return now if the flag byte does not
RET NZ match the first byte on the tape
(Carry flag reset)
LD A,C Restore the carry flag now
INC DE Increase the counter to compensate for
JR 05C4,LD-DEC its decrease after the jump
If a data block is being verified then the freshly loaded byte is tested against
the original byte.
05BD LD-VERIFY LD A,(IX+00) Fetch the original byte
XOR L Match it against the new byte
RET NZ Return if 'no match' (Carry flag reset)
A new byte can now be collected from the tape.
05C2 LD-NEXT INC IX Increase the 'destination'
05C4 LD-DEC DEC DE Decrease the 'counter'
EX AF,AF' Save the flags
LD B,+B2 Set the timing constant
05C8 LD-MARKER LD L,+01 Clear the 'object' register apart from
a 'marker' bit
The 'LD-8-BITS' loop is used to build up a byte in the L register.
05CA LD-8-BITS CALL 05E3,LD-EDGE-2 Find the length of the 'off' and 'on'
pulses of the next bit
RET NC Return if the time period is exceeded
(Carry flag reset)
LD A,+CB Compare the length against approx.
CP B 2,400 T states; resetting the carry flag
for a '0' and setting it for a '1'
RL L Include the new bit in the L register
LD B,+B0 Set the timing constant for the next bit
JP NC,05CA,LD-8-BITS Jump back whilst there are still bits to
The 'parity matching' byte has to be updated with each new byte.
LD A,H Fetch the 'parity matching' byte and
XOR L include the new byte
LD H,A Save it once again
Passes round the loop are made until the 'counter' reaches zero. At that point
the 'parity matching' byte should be holding zero.
LD A,D Make a furter pass if the DE register
OR E pair does not hold zero
LD A,H Fetch the 'parity matching' byte
CP +01 Return with the carry flag set if the
RET value is zero (Carry flag reset if in
THE 'LD-EDGE-2' and 'LD-EDGE-1' SUBROUTINES
These two subroutines form the most important part of the LOAD/VERIFY operation.
The subroutines are entered with a timing constant in the B register, and the
previous border colour and 'edge-type' in the C register.
The subroutines return with the carry flag set if the required number of 'edges'
have been found in the time allowed; and the change to the value in the B
register shows just how long it took to find the 'edge(s)'.
The carry flag will be reset if there is an error. The zero flag then signals
'BREAK pressed' by being reset, or 'time-up' by being set.
The entry point LD-EDGE-2 is used when the length of a complete pulse is
required and LD-EDGE-1 is used to find the time before the next 'edge'.
05E3 LD-EDGE-2 CALL 05E7,LD-EDGE-1 In effect call LD-EDGE-1 twice;
RET NC returning in between in there is an
05E7 LD-EDGE-1 LD A,+16 Wait 358 T states before entering the
05E9 LD-DELAY DEC A sampling loop
The sampling loop is now entered. The value in the B register is incremented for
each pass; 'time-up' is given when B reaches zero.
05ED LD-SAMPLE INC B Count each pass
RET Z Return carry reset & zero set if
LD A,+7F Read from port +7FFE
IN A,(+FE) i.e. BREAK and EAR
RRA Shift the byte
RET NC Return carry reset & zero reset if BREAK
XOR C Now test the byte against the 'last
AND +20 edge-type'
JR Z,05ED,LD-SAMPLE Jump back unless it has changed
A new 'edge' has been found within the time period allowed for the search.
So change the border colour and set the carry flag.
LD A,C Change the 'last edge-type' and border
AND +07 Keep only the border colour
OR +08 Signal 'MIC off'
OUT (+FE),A Change the border colour (RED/CYAN or
SCF Signal the successful search before
Note: The LD-EDGE-1 subroutine takes 464 T states, plus an additional 59 T
states for each unsuccessful pass around the sampling loop.
For example, therefore, when awaiting the sync pulse (see LD-SYNC at 058F)
allowance is made for ten additional passes through the sampling loop.
The search is thereby for the next edge to be found within, roughly, 1,100 T
states (464 + 10 * 59 overhead).
This will prove successful for the sync 'off' pulse that comes after the long